scienceyoucanlove:

How did Lake Nyos suddenly kill 1,700 people?

by 

Lake Nyos had long been quiet before it happened. Farmers and migratory herders in the West African country of Cameroon knew the lake as large, still and blue.

But on the evening of Aug. 21, 1986, farmers living near the lake heard rumbling. At the same time, a frothy spray shot hundreds of feet out of the lake, and a whitecloud collected over the water. From the gro­und, the cloud grew to 328 feet (100 meters) tall and flowed across the land. When farmers near the lake left their houses to investigate the noise, they lost consciousness.

The heavy cloud sunk into a valley, which channeled it into settlements. People in the affected areas collapsed in their tracks — at home, on roads or in the field — losing consciousness or dying in a few breaths. In Nyos an­d Kam, the first villages hit by the cloud, everyone but four inhabitants on high ground died.

The valley split, and the cloud followed, killing people up to 15.5 miles (25 kilometers) away from the lake. Over the next two days, people from surrounding areas entered the valley to find the bodies of humans and cows lying on the ground.

By Aug. 23, the cloud had mostly blown away, and the silence had lifted. After being unconscious for up to 36 hours, some people revived to find, horrifically, that their family members, neighbors and livestock were dead.

The lake had changed, too. It was now shallower; plants and leaves floated in it; and its formerly picturesque blue hue had darkened into rust. 

Scientists soon learned that thecloud contained carbon diox­ide (CO2). That finding explained the cloud’s heaviness, since CO2 is denser than air. The cloud was actually CO2 mixed with air. The CO2 killed directly by shutting off people’s consciousness and breathing. When the CO2concentration was 15 percent or less, people lost consciousness and later revived. Individuals who inhaled more than 15 percent CO2stopped breathing in minutes and died.

As for why the lake ejected CO2 — up to a third of a cubic mile of it — scientists disagreed. One camp believed a volcanic eruption released CO2 and blew up the lake. Another camp thought CO2 was gradually leaking into and being stored in the lake. When the lake exploded, it released the gas in a gigantic, deadly burp.

"While the two camps of scientists were fighting, they agreed that CO2 killed the people, and the people would be safer on higher ground,” says William Evans, a geochemist with the U.S. Geological Survey who investigated the disaster. The Cameroonian government acted accordingly.

Evans’ team installed CO2 monitors on the lakeshore. The monitors were hooked to sirens that would sound if too much CO2 entered the air. People knew the alarms meant they should go to high ground.

As years passed, scientists resolved the debate about the origin of the CO2. After measuring gas at the bottom of Lake Nyos, they found a CO2-rich layer, where levels of the gas were rising over time, suggesting gradual leakage into the bottom of the lake.

Scientists looked for markers of a volcanic eruption, such as sulfur and chloride in the lake. They also installed seismometers around the body of water to record tiny earthquakes that would follow a volcanic eruption. “It was the quietest area that the British Geological Survey had ever monitored,” says Evans. The volcano hypothesis died. CO2 was bubbling into the lake from below.

Scientists reasoned that CO2 had been trapped in the bottom of Lake Nyos for a long time, held down by 682 feet (208 meters) of water. On the day of the eruption, however, something external triggered the release of gas. Most likely, it was a rockslide from one of the lake’s walls. When the falling rocks sunk to the bottom of the lake, they pushed up some gas. Then most of the gas bubbled up.

If this sounds like a freak occurrence to you, read on to learn about the lake that exploded in an eerily similar fashion just two years before.

read more at the source page

last photo source

degassing photos from wikipedia 

petitepasserine:

white women of hollywood, reducing japan and japanese culture to cupcakes, sexy ”costumes” and submissive sex-kittens since god knows when

"While evolutionary psychology suggests that women pass on casual sex due to an inherent lack of sexual desire, Conley says there’s an entirely different reason. She posits that women say ‘thanks, but no thanks’ for fear of being judged. She also says that women have serious reservations about whether a one-night stand would be enjoyable with a new partner. She tries to explain to men, ‘The reason women are turning you down for casual sex seems to be that, for one thing, a lot of you are calling them sluts afterward.’ Also, ‘A lot of you aren’t bothering to try to be good in bed.’ Preach."
bauske:

4gifs:

Waterbears can go without food or water for more than a decade. They can survive temperatures from zero to above the boiling point of water, pressure six times stronger than the deepest ocean trench, radiation hundreds of times higher than the fatal dose for a human, and the vacuum of space.

I’ve never seen one in motion. :O

bauske:

4gifs:

Waterbears can go without food or water for more than a decade. They can survive temperatures from zero to above the boiling point of water, pressure six times stronger than the deepest ocean trench, radiation hundreds of times higher than the fatal dose for a human, and the vacuum of space.

I’ve never seen one in motion. :O

andromeda4002019:

i got this at an art museum from a vending machine with boxes of tiny art inside. u didnt know what u were gonna get. i straight up paid $3 for this

andromeda4002019:

i got this at an art museum from a vending machine with boxes of tiny art inside. u didnt know what u were gonna get. i straight up paid $3 for this

nerdache-cakes:

All of you are wrong. The J in GIF is silent. Like in José.

Hif.

buttwyatt:

dwayne ‘the mineral’ johnson, jesus christ marie

misuzu0204:

ツーといえばカー
 ところで本誌はよんでないので小鞠ちゃんがどういうキャラなのかいまいちまだわからんのですが 4月のコミックを待とうと思います…我慢、我慢や光太郎!

misuzu0204:

ツーといえばカー


ところで本誌はよんでないので小鞠ちゃんがどういうキャラなのかいまいちまだわからんのですが
4月のコミックを待とうと思います…我慢、我慢や光太郎!